Snow Leopards of Central Asia

2023 dates and itinerary coming soon
  • Snow Leopard 2
  • Winter Camoflage and lens
  • Snow leopard in Darvaz
  • Chon Kemin lodge 1
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  • Snow leopard in the snow
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  • Marco Polo Sheep
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  • Markhor Goat
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  • chon kemin lodge 2
  • Snow leopard running
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A pioneering Silk Road Adventure into Tajikistan’s majestic mountain ranges in search of the elusive snow leopard.

Panthera uncia: the snow leopard. There are few mammals on earth that we know less about. Listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List, only 9,000 of these intriguing creatures are believed to remain in the wild – and about seven hundred of them inhabit the snowy peaks of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

A Pioneering Silk Road Adventure

Run in close partnership with local conservation organisations, this thrilling two-week expedition will take you deep into the mountains of Tajikistan in search of the snow leopard. This Silk Road Adventure is as much about being involved in the conservation efforts of these enigmatic animals as it is about seeing one for yourself.

On this tour, you will spend time in remote mountains looking for snow leopards, wolves, ibex, markhor and Marco Polo sheep. Local rangers and conservationists will be your guides, and in the evenings you’ll enjoy the cosy surrounds of family-run mountain lodges.

In between our two mountain locations, you’ll enjoy the luxury of Dushanbe’s best 5* hotels and travel in top-spec 4WD vehicles.

There’s a reason why these mountains are little-explored: the trails and slopes in this region are steep and challenging, so you will need to be physically fit to take them on.

The more you venture into the wilderness, the more likely you are to be rewarded with a snow leopard sighting. Those that embrace the rugged terrain will get the most out of this pioneering expedition.

DEPARTURE/RETURN LOCATION Dushanbe International Airport, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
DEPARTURE TIME Please ensure you arrive in good time for our scheduled departure from Dushanbe
  • 4WD vehicles + drivers – properly insured, prepared and maintained for our use.
  • Accommodation in rustic mountain lodges and 5* hotels
  • All meals, breakfast, lunch and dinner. Some alcohol.
  • Local airport transfers
  • A professional local guiding and conservation team plus one of the directors of Silk Road Adventures.
  • Conservation lectures from Tajik conservationists
  • Wildlife tracking with expert local rangers
  • Fresh filtered water + a Water 2 Go water filtration bottle, in order to reduce plastic waste
  • All entry fees
  • White camouflage clothing (for tracking in the snow)
  • Professional route planning and logistics, backed by risk assessments, emergency procedures, satellite communications (where necessary) and medical support. We don’t take risks lightly and we plan for all eventualities, believing it is better to have prepared and not require a procedure than not to plan at all. We also carry a very well stocked First Aid and Trauma medical kit and have been First Aid and Trauma trained by the excellent team at Crux Medical.
  • International Flights
  • Guide and ranger gratuity
  • Your personal clothing and any equipment – details to follow after signing-up.
  • Extra daily costs for snacks, alcohol or souvenirs
  • Your personal travel insurance
  • Extra camera traps you wish to donate to the conservation groups
  • Visas and other permits as required

Visit Tajikistan

This incredible trip focuses on two separate conservation areas in Tajikistan’s Pamir mountains.

After a night of 5* luxury in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, you’ll spend the rest of the trip in two separate community-run conservancies in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, where you’ll stay in mountain lodges and homestays.

Here, guided by a team of expert local rangers and conservationists, you’ll spend your time exploring the surrounding mountains and forests by foot and 4WD. In the evenings, you’ll return to the warmth and comfort of the lodge, where hot food, good cheer, conservation talks and traditional Tajik entertainment await.

There is a varied range of species here, ranging from Bukharan Markhor (the world’s largest goat), Marco Polo sheep, Ibex, wolves and the rare and elusive Snow leopard. The reason we run this trip at this time of year is because it is the best time to spot the leopard.

Alongside tracking wildlife, you’ll be setting up camera traps, analyzing footage and visiting local schools. With the children there, you will learn about the importance of these creatures to the community and the importance of saving them from extinction.

Two years in the planning, and run in close conjunction with international and local conservation teams, this is a great opportunity to see Tajikistan from a unique perspective.

However, this is not a trip for the faint-hearted. It will be cold and remote and you will need to be both physically fit and prepared to spend a long time in remote mountain environments. The luxury is in the fact that very few people travel here, and a proportion of your money will be going directly to local conservation efforts.

This trip runs from Thursday 27 January to 10 February. We have not included a full itinerary on our website: if you’d like to know more please get in touch via our contact page.

“According to local legends [in Tajikistan], the snow leopard is a pari or mergich, a holy and powerful being, that needs to be propitiated to ensure the success of summer herding and dairy production by the community, as well as the success of hunters.”

– Tanya Rosen, National Geographic

Snow Leopards of Central Asia
This is a guaranteed departure. Maximum group size 6 persons.
2023 dates are coming soon and will be between early February and late March, 2023
We have already provisionally sold 3 of the 6 available places

The itinerary below was from 2022. A full trip report from 2022 will be published alongside the 2023 itinerary.


Day 0 – Wednesday 26 January, 2022: Depart your home country

Start Point: Your Home
Destination: Dushanbe
Travel: Air Travel to Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Fly from your home city via Istanbul, with Turkish Airlines, Emirates/Fly Dubai or similar.

From the UK, flights depart in the middle of the day today from various airports. From North America, your flight may depart early today or even have a departure time on Tuesday 25th, time-zone depending.


Day 1 – Thursday 27 January: Arrive Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Destination: Dushanbe

Regardless of your departure country, this is the day you will need to arrive into Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Most flights (either via Istanbul or Dubai) arrive in the very early hours of the morning (Dushanbe is GMT +5, PST +12), so we will collect you from the airport and whisk you to the Aga Khan owned 5* Serena Hotel, in the city centre. This is both comfortable and stylish, and has excellent food. The perfect place to gird your loins before your assault on the Pamirs!

Tonight’s supper will be at a local restaurant in Dushanbe.

Meals: LD


Day 2 – Friday 28 January: Dushanbe to first wildlife conservancy

Start Point: Dushanbe
Destination: Secret Location in the Darvaz Range
Travel: Land Cruiser 4x4

This morning, after breakfast at the Serena, it’s chocks away as you head into the mountains. You’ll be travelling in very good Land Cruisers, with drivers and your team of expert guides. It’s around a five hour drive today, into the south-western edge of the Pamir mountains. You’ll end the day at a cosy mountain lodge in a family run conservancy.

You’ll spend the next few nights in the lodge, where you’ll have the chance to meet some of the rangers and hear the truly amazing story of how this place rose from the ashes of the Tajik civil war of the early nineties. There’s the chance to have a Russian-style sauna, or banya, here if you like.

The rooms here are simple, and the bathroom is outside, but it’s warm and the food is very good.

*It’s important for us to point out that this is a hunting and conservation lodge, and that the conservation efforts are funded by the limited amount (5 per year for Markhor) of licensed trophy hunts that happen here each year. Hunters (mainly American and South African) pay in excess of $50,000 for a single Bukharan Markhor, the world’s biggest goat, (the rangers select an old or sick individual), the money then being used to fund this highly effective conservancy. 28 rangers are employed full time here and the school is funded by the conservancy, for a start. We will do our best to ensure that there are no hunters there at the same time as you.

Meals: BLD


Days 3,4,5,6 – Saturday 29th January to Tuesday 1st February: First wildlife conservancy

Travel: Mostly on foot, with local 4x4 transfers
Notes: Altitude: 1200 metres

In order to have the best chance of seeing a Snow Leopard, you’ll have four days at this conservancy, staying in the lodge and spending your days out in the mountains with the rangers.

January / February is the best time to see these elusive cats, as they come down to the lower altitudes to feed on their main prey species, the Bukharan Markhor, and we want to make sure you have the best chance possible to see one. The rangers will know the rough movements of the cats in the previous days and weeks, from scat and tracks.

After hearty breakfasts at the lodge (which is warm, has private rooms – some with wood burners – and hot showers in an outside block), you’ll spend much of the day in the hills with the rangers, looking for Bukharan Markhor, ibex, wolf and Snow leopard. On some days you’ll have a very early breakfast and go out before sunrise to look for wildlife, using a mountain hut as your base. The hut has a stove, so you can keep warm and have hot tea. After a few hours of wildlife watching, you’ll return to the lodge for a warming early lunch, have some time to relax, and then go out again in the late afternoon to look for wildlife again. The rangers are astonishingly eagle-eyed and can spot a herd of 30 Markhor where all you can see is a rock face!

The terrain is rough and rocky, but spectacular and often you will be looking out across the Panj river to the villages and peaks of Afghanistan.

You will need to have a degree of physical fitness to get the best from this experience and a can-do attitude to getting up and out to the best locations. The trails are narrow and some are dizzying, but our guides will be with us and looking after us at all times.

On other days, you will split your time between wildlife watching and hiking through this wild landscape. Although the altitude isn’t very high (around 1200 metres) the terrain is rough, and you can walk for as long as you wish.

There will also be the chance to visit the local primary school (and teach an English lesson if you like), where the children are very engaged with conservation efforts and know all about the leopards and their importance.


Day 7 – Wednesday 2nd February: On to Kala-i-Kumb

Start Point: First Wildlife Conservancy
Destination: Kala-i-Khumb
Travel: 4x4
Notes: Altitude: 1200 metres

After four days here, you’ll head further east along the Afghan border, stopping for a night in the town of Kala-i-Kumb.

You’ll spend tonight in a 4* hotel, with en-suite bathrooms and good rooms.

Supper will be at a riverside restaurant in town.

Meals: BD


Day 8 – Thursday 3rd February: Kala -i-Kumb to second wildlife conservancy

Start Point: Kala-i-Khumb
Destination: Second Wildlife Conservancy
Travel: 4x4
Notes: Altitude: 2500 metres

After breakfast at the hotel you’ll hop in the car to follow the course of the Amu Darya 200 km east through jagged mountains and ancient villages, Afghanistan just metres away across the water. Expect soaring eagles, stunning mountain scenery and dusty roads carved through deep river gorges. This is an epic day’s driving, up to an altitude of 2500 metres, along roads flanked by steep mountains. There is a little tarmac today, but most of it is dirt, as in the photo below. It’s about six hours’ driving in total, depending how much you stop to gawp and take photos, which you will no doubt want to do! Lunch will be a packed lunch.

This evening you’ll arrive in a remote Pamiri valley, where you will spend the next few days at a family-run homestay. You’ll be spending your time here at an altitude of 2500 – 3000 metres, in the shadow of 7000 metre peaks.

You’ll be based in a mountain village for the next few nights, in a simple homestay with shared rooms, stoves and outside squat loos. We will make sure you are warm and comfortable though, and the hospitality of the local people is truly outstanding.

Supper – and all your food here – will be at the homestay, with all the produce grown here in the valley – including vegetables, homemade bread, eggs, chicken and mutton, apricots, almonds and pomegranate. We will also be bringing extra food, tea, coffee, treats and snacks from Dushanbe, to ensure you don’t ever go hungry!

Meals: BLD


Days 9, 10, 11, 12 – Friday 4th February to Monday 7th February: Second wildlife conservancy

Travel: Mostly on foot
Notes: Altitude: 2500 - 3000 metres

You will spend the next four days in this valley, in the heart of the newly set-up community conservancy, managed by a former hunter. There is a lower density of Snow leopards here than your first location, and their main prey species are Ibex rather than Markhor, but the cats are spotted regularly and often prey on corralled livestock in the surrounding villages. Last January, the local rangers had four Snow leopard sightings very near the village, and you can watch herds of ibex from the window of your homestay.

Your days will be split between wildlife watching and walking – depending on how you feel and what the weather is like. Last January and February there was about 40 cm of snow on the ground here, and the temperature has been no lower than -15. Every winter is different though.

We will also arrange visits to the local school and a wonderful local women’s group who make traditional handicrafts. And of course there will be evenings of traditional music and dance.

Bartang towards Shakdara Range

This will be a very special experience to be a part of local life, and to immerse yourself in the community here, as well as positively benefiting local conservation efforts.


Day 13 – Tuesday 8th February: Back to Kala-i-Kumb

Start Point: Second Wildlife Conservancy
Destination: Kala-i-Khumb
Travel: 4x4
Notes: Altitude: 1200 metres

Today you’ll leave the valley and begin the drive back to Dushanbe in the company of our drivers and local guide. You’ll travel first back to Kala-i-Kumb, stopping for a local lunch on the road.

Meals: BLD


Day 14 – Wednesday 9th February: Kala-i-Kumb to Dushanbe

Start Point: Kala-i-Khumb
Destination: Dushanbe
Travel: 4x4

Today is your last day on the road, and you’ll be returning to Dushanbe on a different road (snow allowing) to the southern, Kulob route you took on the way. This road takes you north over the Khaburabot pass, and through more magnificent mountain scenery. You’ll stop for lunch and be back in Dushanbe by the late-afternoon. It’s around 6.5 hours on the road today. If you want to go the faster way, you can go the same way you came east on, which is an hour or so shorter, on better roads.

You’ll be staying in the Aga Khan’s 5* Serena Hotel, and a farewell supper with your local guide will be at the best restaurant in town.

Meals: BLD


Day 15 – Thursday 10th February, 2022: Dushanbe

Start Point: Dushanbe
Destination: Your Home
Travel: Air

The Turkish Airlines flight departs at 05.35 today, getting you into Istanbul around 08.30 local time, and from here you can make the connections back to your home airport. London arrivals get in by early afternoon, and those to the USA arrive by evening, local time.

Tour Start Date End Date Price
Snow Leopards of Central Asia 2022 28/01/2023 31/03/2023 £6,250.00 Coming Soon

How is this different from other “snow leopard” trips I’ve seen advertised?

It has taken us more than two years to get this trip ready for you and no one offers anything  like this. Most other trips offering snow leopard spotting are in Ladakh in North-West India which, while being a very beautiful part of the world, is also high (3,500 m, or 11,500 ft) and this can create issues with altitude. Our lodge in Tajikistan is only just over 1000 m (3300 ft) above sea level. In Kyrgyzstan we are around the same height, so again there will be no issues with altitude sickness.

India is also a far better-known destination than Tajikistan. We would encourage you to try something new, something where the income we generate is of great benefits to a local economy that is only recently beginning to see the fruits of slowly increasing tourism. Further, Ladakh – in Indian-administered Kashmir – is sometimes subject to security concerns that are not an issue in Central Asia.

We are specialists in Central Asia and know these countries incredibly well. Our directors, Marley and Antonia, have between them spent years in Tajikistan, and have spent months at a time living in these countries. We know the best places, the best people and where to find the best coffee: it is our insider knowledge and attention to detail that makes us different.

This is also a trip led by one of our own Directors, whose extensive local knowledge will help you to extract the very most from there two very different but marvellous countries.

The trip is designed to provide not only income but other real, tangible benefits to the conservation effort to understand and preserve the iconic snow leopard. Finally, the density of prey species and numbers of snow leopards hereabouts – particularly in Tajikistan where this trip will end – together with the highly professional approach of our local team allows us to believe that you stand an excellent chance of spotting a snow leopard here without creating any risk to the species itself or to any prey species. This is of the utmost importance to us.

The highest density of snow leopards ever recorded is in the community based conservancy where we end the trip.

Are the conservation efforts here linked to commercial trophy hunting?

In Central Asia, as in many parts of the world, conservation efforts are often ‘supported’ by controlled hunting. Whilst it may not be something we find personally palatable, this income stream has allowed for the training of guides, purchase of camera traps, monitoring of populations, development of lodge facilities and – in many cases  – has been critical to the preservation of endangered species. The hunting of snow leopards themselves has been illegal in Central Asia for decades, but prey species such as Marco Polo Sheep and Markhor goats are hunted in controlled numbers each season. As an example, to hunt a Marco Polo in Tajikistan costs upwards of US$50,000, with a percentage of these funds going back to conservation efforts. This hunting – and the rangers trained to track and enforce the numbers killed  – has had a direct correlation with a marked reduction in illegal poaching. It is in the interest of the species managers to ensure that populations of ungulates are maintained at viable numbers and that poaching is kept at bay.

So, the presence of hunting is not something we can affect. Our efforts to support the conservation efforts by bringing small amounts of wildlife tourists do help to diversify away from a pure hunting agenda and we are keen to see this increase – whilst also realizing that a single hunter paying $$$ has arguably less environmental impact than the number of traditional tourists needed to raise the same income.

This is a balance that we are acutely aware of and are trying at all times to improve by carefully considering all of our actions. We want to be open about the presence of hunting in some of the places we stay and whilst there will not be a physical overlap between hunters and guests on this trip, we don’t want anyone to think we are hiding any truths.

The reserve we will visit in Kyrgyzstan was once a hunting concession and now a place of total sanctuary where species are being protected by rangers. This is the kind of good news story that we are keen to see, and it is our hope that properly managed small group trips like ours will form a key part of the income stream that helps to manage these reserves in the future.

If you want to read more about this subject, a fascinating article has been published in Biographic Magazine, produced by the California Academy of Sciences. You can read this in-depth article here.

Is this trip benefiting local conservation efforts?

Yes! Because of our knowledge and contacts in the region, we are working directly with local conservation organisations in Tajikistan – rather than arranging things through a local tour operator. This means that a large proportion of the trip costs is directly funding conservation efforts here. For example, the mountain lodges we are staying in are also the homes of local (volunteer) wildlife rangers, and 25 per cent of the costs of staying at the lodge go directly to funding local conservation efforts. We have also worked hard to incorporate conservation into this trip: you will have briefings and talks from local experts, spend each day with specialist rangers, help set camera traps and analyze the footage and visit local schools and families to learn about the importance of human-wildlife relationships in these fragile mountains. The fact we are staying in the rangers homes also adds an enriching cultural dimension to the trip.

Much of this trip is designed to give our guests hands-on involvement with conservation efforts. Indeed, the trip has been designed in two parts with the first placing high emphasis on being involved with conservation of species and habitats that benefit the snow leopard, whilst understanding that the chances of spotting them is low. However, in the second part of the trip all that effort will hopefully be repaid to our lucky guests, as the chances of seeing the cats themselves in that location is far greater.

Where will we be staying?

On this expedition, we’ll be staying in an excellent 5* hotel in Dushanbe. In the mountains of Tajikistan we will be staying at a family-run guesthouse and a hunting and conservation lodge with hot showers, comfortable beds and good hot food. These lodges are simple and due to space constraints room sharing might be needed – this is a wild part of the world with little infrastructure after all, so we see this as part of the experience. 

In order to maximize comfort at these lodges, we will be adding soft duvets, fresh linen and good pillows to each bed. Furthermore, we’ll make sure you all have hot water bottles at night, and that the rooms are warm and cosy. We will also be bringing with us a generous stash of good wines, G&T and delicious food.

What size of group will it be?

Our group sizes are always small, allowing for an intimate experience of the cultures we meet along our path. On this expedition, group size is limited to just six guests.  We like our expeditions to have a personal touch throughout and you’ll be accompanied at all times by one of the Silk Road Adventures directors, as well as our highly-knowledgeable local guides and wildlife rangers.

Why is this expedition in January and February?

February is the best month to see snow leopards. At this time of year, snow and cold weather up in the mountains drive key prey species down to lower altitudes, making the cats easier to spot. Yes it will be cold and you won’t be sipping margaritas on the veranda at night, but if you want to see the cats, February it is!

How good are my chances of actually seeing a snow leopard?

We have chosen the best spots to try to locate the animals and whilst there is unequivocally no guarantee that any species will perform to our schedule, our local rangers have extensive experience and years of local knowledge that maximize our chances of seeing these majestic animals. We are in the right location at the right time of year, with the right resources and local knowledge.

In 2013, the reserve we are visiting in Tajikistan recorded the highest density – at that time – of snow leopards in the world, with 6 cats in a 100 square kilometre area. A team returning in 2016 identified ten cats in the same reserve.

We don’t feel there is much more we can do to increase your chances of seeing these iconic creatures. As we’ve outlined above, this is not a pure “photography”- style trip, but is intended to provide not only a real opportunity to see a snow leopard but also to get involved in the efforts to conserve the species we are here to see.

What will the weather be like?

A very difficult question to answer when traversing high mountain ranges. But the temperatures are likely to be down to around -15 and you will need to be prepared for cold, dry, snowy conditions. However, we will be issuing people with a very detailed equipment list once they have signed up.

How fit do I need to be?

You will need to be relatively fit and prepared to spend days in cold, snowy, mountainous terrain – fit enough to walk perhaps 10 km per day (at the most) in rough and often steep terrain. We will generally be walking far less than this, but we want to illustrate that you need a good level of fitness and that this is not armchair wildlife spotting, nor is it a safari conducted from the back of a Land Cruiser. You will also be spending some time on horses – see below To get the view for the photos you want, you will need to put some effort in!

I’m a solo traveller – is this for me?

Yes. More than 85 per cent of our guests travel alone as part of our group. We don’t usually charge single supplements to solo travellers and there is no single supplement on this trip.

Do you charge single supplements – I can’t see them in your information?

Not on this trip no. We don’t believe that solo travellers should be penalized with extra charges. It goes against our ethos, so unless totally unavoidable or astronomically expensive, all costs are included in the expedition price. Please note that in many of our destinations, single rooms are simply not available due to the nature of the available tourism infrastructure.

Will I have to share a room?

At times, yes. You’ll of course have your own room in the 5* hotel in Dushanbe, but in the mountain lodges you may have to share a room with either one or two other people as a result of space limitations. If we have more than three couples travelling, everyone should have their own room, but if every person is travelling solo you will have to share.

What kit do I need to bring?

We will provide you with an information pack after signing up to this trip, and this will detail any particular equipment we think either necessary or useful.

Do you use decent vehicles?

Yes. We will travel in top-spec  4WD vehicles with carefully chosen drivers.


Will I be affected by altitude?

Altitude can affect different people in different ways. It can also affect the same person in different ways from trip to trip. We won’t be spending time at significant altitudes above 2500 m, so this is not anticipated to be an issue on this trip.

Do you perform proper risk management on your expeditions?

Yes. We are members of TRIP – the Travel Risk and Incident Prevention Group – and perform detailed country risk assessments prior to departure, in line with the ISO 31000 international standard for risk assessment. We also maintain close contact with the relevant Foreign and Commonwealth Office advice for countries we plan to visit, in addition to making use of the Australian Smart Traveller assessment tool, and the US State Department’s OSAC service. Beyond this, we have a full set of risk management and disaster contingency plans for each expedition and are expedition first aid trained by Crux Medical. For final back up we also use the services of Remote Medical Support that allows us to have a UK expedition doctor on the end of a telephone line wherever we may be. And we always carry a satellite phone where communications are at all iffy. We really don’t mess around when it comes to safety.

Is this for me?

Although this is an extremely enlivening way to spend a couple of weeks of your life, it’s also potentially dangerous. Travelling by 4WD and horse is an inherently risky activity anywhere in the world and to compound this, you will be travelling in fairly remote, often mountainous areas.

You’ll spend days – some of which will be long – tracking wildlife in mountainous terrain. Do not book a place if you are not relatively fit – this is not a trip whereby you can watch animals from an armchair. What effort you put in will determine to an extent what results you get out of it!

Don’t even consider signing up for this adventure if you aren’t fully aware of the risks you are taking.

Furthermore, Central Asia can be very tough to travel and in most places the tourism industry is in its infancy. This is why we – and hopefully you – like it so much. There’ll be no Wi-Fi or mobile reception for some of the trip  and the road conditions, bathrooms, food and temperatures won’t be the same as in London, Hong Kong or New York.

We will be doing everything we can to make it as comfortable as we can but this remains a place on the frontiers of travel so it is not a luxury trip in the traditional sense. The luxury is in the exclusivity, the wilderness and the exceedingly rare opportunity to spot snow leopards in these little-explored mountains.

If you like your holidays to include foie gras, butlers and quilted loo roll then please look elsewhere. This probably isn’t for you. If however, you want a proper, epic experience that you’ll remember forever, then you are in luck.



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